Servo Motors

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Servo Motors

What is a Servo Motor?

A servomotor is a closed-loop servomechanism that uses position feedback to control its motion and final position. The input to its control is a signal representing the position commanded for the output shaft.

Closed Loop System:

Servo Motor Closed Loop System Diagram

The very simplest servomotors use position-only sensing via a potentiometer and bang-bang control of their motor; the motor always rotates at full speed (or is stopped). This type of servomotor is not widely used in industrial motion control, but it forms the basis of the simple and cheap servos used for radio-controlled models.

More sophisticated servo motors use optical rotary encoders to measure the speed of the output shaft and a variable-speed drive to control the motor speed. Both of these enhancements, usually in combination with a PID control, allow the servomotor to be brought to its commanded position more quickly and more precisely, with a lowered risk of overshoot.

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